The subject of this book is the Federal Income Taxation of individuals, meaning human beings. It briefly touches on the taxation of partnerships, trusts and corporations, largely for the purpose of enhancing your understanding of how individuals are taxed when they own interests in such entities. The Federal Income Tax on individuals provides the great preponderance of the federal government's revenues. The other primary sources of government revenue, aside from borrowing money and Social Security taxes, are corporate income taxes, transfer taxes imposed on gifts and the estates of decedents, and so-called excise taxes. The latter are usually in the nature of sales taxes on particular items, such as gasoline and diesel fuel, and some are just penalties under a gentler name. This book is limited to taxation of U.S. citizens who reside in the United States, subject to some sideways glances at the implications of departing the United States or coming to it as an alien. This book is traditional in nature, and has many of the usual landmark cases on the subject. It contains numerous study problems and requires selected readings of the Internal Revenue Code and the Treasury Regulations.
Petroleum taxation is the universal instrument through which governments seek to determine the crucial balance between the financial interests of the oil companies and the owners of the resource. This book addresses how governments have and continue to approach this problem, the impacts of different policy choices and how these are being adapted to changing business conditions. Carole Nakhle presents the reader with an illuminating and robust analysis of the entire taxation story, from the basic theoretical considerations through to advanced computations applied to various tax regimes.
Nakhle's main argument is that petroleum taxation is a subject of complexity, variety and subject to continued evolution, being surrounded and shaped by multifaceted geological, technical and market factors together with unpredictable political influences. The author challenges the assumption that perfect models of petroleum taxation can be designed and applied to countries and circumstances around the world, arguing that an ideal structure exists only in theory but can be nonetheless a useful benchmark against which to test proposed fiscal systems.