Bruce Springsteen is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and humanitarian. He is best known for his work with his E Street Band. Nicknamed "The Boss," Springsteen is widely known for his brand of poetic lyrics, Americana, working class and sometimes political sentiments centered on his native New Jersey, his distinctive voice and his lengthy and energetic stage performances, with concerts from the 1970s to the present decade running over four hours in length. Springsteen's recordings have included both commercially accessible rock albums and more somber folk-oriented works. His most successful studio albums, Born to Run (1975) and Born in the U.S.A. (1984), showcase a talent for finding grandeur in the struggles of daily American life. He has sold more than 64 million albums in the United States and more than 120 million records worldwide, making him one of the world's best-selling artists of all time. He has earned numerous awards for his work, including 20 Grammy Awards, two Golden Globes and an Academy Award as well as being inducted into both the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1999. Springsteen was inspired to take up music at the age of seven after seeing Elvis Presley on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1956 and growing up hearing fellow New Jersey singer, Frank Sinatra, on the radio. Sinatra also inspired Springsteen's style of songwriting, which was developed in his youth after his mother bought him his first guitar for $18. 1964 was also an important year for Springsteen, having seen The Beatles' appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show. Thereafter he started playing for audiences, first at a trailer park on New Jersey Route 34 and then at a local Elks Lodge. In 1965, Springsteen's mother took out a loan to buy her 16-year-old son a $60 Kent guitar, an act he subsequently memorialized in his song "The Wish."
In 1999 the IFAC/IFIP Workshop on Real Time Programming (WRTP) joined forces with the Workshop on Active and Real-Time Database Systems (ARTDB). Both series of workshops provide an excellent forum for exchanging information on recent scientific and technological advances and practices in real time computing, a field that is becoming an essential enabling discipline of both control engineering and computer science and engineering.
The annual Workshop on Real Time Programming and the bi-annual Workshop on Active and Real-time Databases Systems are intended as meetings of relatively small numbers of experts in their fields taking place as truly international events. The 1999 Workshop maintained the outstanding quality of both series, providing an opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art, to present new results, and to discuss possible lines of future developments. Primarily, it focused on software development for real time systems, real time operating systems and active and real time database systems.
In particular, the technical programme of the Workshop covered latest research and developments in requirements engineering, software engineering, active and real time database systems, communication and clock synchronisation, embedded systems, formal methods, operating systems and scheduling. Out of 58 submissions from 19 countries, the International Programme Committee selected 26 regular papers and 8 reserve papers for presentation at the Workshop. Contributions come from Europe, North America, Australia, and the Far East. In addition to these, the programme also featured two world renowned keynote speakers, and a discussion panel about the state-of-the-art in the field of active real time database systems.